The Applications of Smart Materials in Hydraulic Machineries: Combination of Piezoelectricity and Bubbles

Due to the secondary Bjerknes force, the bubbles migrate towards the wall, generate the toroidal shape, and then form high-speed jet, which causes high impulsive pressure [[1]](https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-fluid-mechanics/article/div-classtitleexperimental-and-numerical-inv...

By Xiaojian Ma, Biao Huang, Guoyu Wang