Toward Developing a Comprehensive Theory of Immunology for Guiding Future Immunological Research

Concluding my research in plant and comparative immunology, I theorized that immunity is fundamentally the genetic program’s ability to resist change and maintain homeostasis. All immunological phenomena are governed not by molecular discontinuities mediated by receptor-ligand interactions—known...

By Giulio Zampogna

Naturalness of Atheism and Supernaturalness of Religion - A Role for Theological Science

Scientific approaches ("science" narrowly defined as the "sciences of nature") metaphysically exclude divine effects as appropriate--in other words, science itself is structured to exclude divine action (pragmatically). The problem with the "natural" study of religion is that religion cannot be ...

By Matthew MacLennan

Large scale species hybridization as a new tool for brain mapping

Cichlid fishes have undergone massive speciation in [recent years] (http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v5/n4/full/nrg1316.html). The species number of Cichlid fishes in [African lakes are in hundreds] (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-294x.2001.01200.x/abstract;jsessionid=58D9FA7...

By Sukant Khurana, Naveen Tripathi, Shail Adrian Jagmag

What’s black and white and eating stuff all over? Hypotheses for the evolution of killer whale coloration and similar coloration patterns in prey species

The greatest diversity of killer whale forms–or possible (sub)species – is in the Antarctic. One reason may be because killer whales originated in, or near, the Antarctic, which would also explain their large size - an example of Bergmann’s rule [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bergmann%27s_rule], ...

By Edward Christien Michael Parsons

Naturalness of Atheism and Unnaturalnes of Religion

The standard model of Cognitive Science of Religion (CSR) explains religion as some kind of natural phenomenon. Religious ideas and beliefs are considered as natural not only in the sense of their foundation on cognitive processes and mechanisms, but also as obvious, intuitive, and in some sense...

By konrad szocik

Endurance Hunting aa a Driver for Sexual Dimorphism and Role Differentiation

Early humans were endurance hunters. They were successful in long distance pursuit of prey. This behavioral strategy is believed to be at least 2MM years old, predating h. sapiens, and persists in Kalahari bushmen and the Tarahumara, amongst others. However, long distance running reduces body fa...

By Richard Katz

The evolution of smaller arms in theropod dinosaurs

Carnivorous theropod dinosaurs may have had brilliant breast displays that were better shown off with less distracting arm size. At mating time female theropods selected males with smaller arms, for it was in the display that male potency was better measured. Arms blocked and confused the mess...

By Kevin Welch

Evolution in genetic terms – Is it RNA world or DNA world or is it anything else?

The RNA world concept that self-replicating ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules are keys to all current forms of life on Earth and geticists could not go further down might have missed out on how evolution has actually happened in real genetic terms. Out of all hypothesis and proposals, one t...

By Naveen Tripathi, Nabajit Das, Arindam Sikdar, AABID HUSSAIN

Complexity spaces will capture more a more nuanced understanding of technological evolution in the Pleistocene

In Paleolithic archaeology, we are interested in changes in complexity in technology, social networks, and communication over time. However, little research has been done to specify and quantify what is meant by ‘complexity.’ Recently that has begun to change. All of these contributions seem ...

By Robert Mahaney