Towards a unified framework for studying the impact of linear infrastructures

Linear infrastructures such as roads, railways and power lines have considerable negative impacts on biodiversity and ecosystems (van der Ree et al. 2015; [Borda-de-Água et al.... continue reading

Redefining Addiction to Recognize Compulsive Video Gaming as a Disorder

Recognizing compulsive video gaming as a disorder is critical for developing corresponding treatment and prevention programs while reinforcing the various therapeutic, educational, and social benefits associated with gaming. Gaming addiction—like... continue reading

A Comparative Historical Political Economy Approach to Tariffs and Economic Development

In his influential book, Kicking Away the Ladder (2002), Ha-Joon Chang explains that developed nations like the US used protectionist policies like high tariffs to develop. This argument is in direct contrast to the view that laissez-faire... continue reading

The Political Economy of the National Historic Register

In 1966, the U.S. Congress passed the National Historic Preservation Act. The Act created the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) to catalog all of the nation’s important historical objects, buildings, and areas. The National Register is... continue reading

Textbook Coverage of Inframarginal Externalities

Externalities are an important concept in economics as they are one of the many potential issues with markets. Negative externalities, for example, occur when costs are imposed on others outside the market system. Air pollution is but one example.... continue reading

Alchian-Allen Effect in Higher Education

The Alchian-Allen Theorem states that when there are two substitute goods of differing quality and a fixed per unit amount is added to the cost of the product, consumption will shift towards the higher quality good as it is relatively cheaper. The... continue reading


MAOI and St John's Wort treatments for OCD may have a similar radical-based mechanism. Six years' unrelieved total compulsive thinking was cured by the MAOI Phenelzine, with also a role for radical-releasing phenols which enter the CNS very little... continue reading

Imagery in Rock and Ancient Art Influenced by Pareidolic Response to Environmental Stimuli

A Pareidolic Response to Environmental Stimuli occurs when it is triggered by a certain richly textured surface or object . This human trait is a result of a survival mechanism, where the environment is quickly scanned for potential threats. A... continue reading

Microbial butanol tolerance: mediated by toxicity or by phase equilibrium?

It is conventionally assumed that the achievable concentration of a bio-alcohol molecule by fermentation is limited by the toxicity of that molecule to the micro-organisms producing it. In the case of ethanol, for example, extremely high titers... continue reading

Effects of temperature on alcohol tolerance of microbes

It has been established that dissolution of membrane lipids plays a role in the toxicity of ethanol and butanol to micro-organisms; a matter of particular importance for the production of bio-alcohol fuels using fermentation by microbial activity.... continue reading


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