It is conventionally assumed that the achievable concentration of a bio-alcohol molecule by fermentation is limited by the toxicity of that molecule to the micro-organisms producing it. In the case of ethanol, for example, extremely high titers... continue reading
It has been established that dissolution of membrane lipids plays a role in the toxicity of ethanol and butanol to micro-organisms; a matter of particular importance for the production of bio-alcohol fuels using fermentation by microbial activity.... continue reading
In a typical household there are appliances for heating and other appliances for cooling. The former, including geysers, stoves, ovens and space heaters, typically use a heating element - an inefficient approach from an energy usage standpoint.... continue reading
The ultimate beneficiary of a biomedical journal article should be the patient. To realize this benefit, a publication must provide both the rational evidence plus a reason to act on the part of a healthcare professional. Sponsors of clinical... continue reading
The rate of accretion onto the Milky Way (MW) by an individual cloud (or satellite) can be written as dM/dt = M v / R, where M is the cloud mass, v the cloud velocity toward the MW, and R is the distance from the cloud to the MW. Over the time t =... continue reading
The Gaia space telescope is currently measuring parallax distances for Galactic stars with ~1% precision out to ~1kpc. This will be a revolutionary data set, but order-of-magnitude improvements are possible with... continue reading
Biomedical waste (BMW) ash, generated from incineration of BMW, consists of several heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which can cause severe damage to the environment by seeping into the ground and by polluting the surface... continue reading
Should scholars publish in the journal they are working for (as editor-in-chief, for example?). In other words, is it legitimate to publish in his own journal, that is to say submit and co-sign in a journal of which one is editor-in-chief (except... continue reading
Venture capitalists work under the concept of investing small amounts in lots of startup companies, some of which will fail, some of which will make a little money, and a few of which will make a lot of money.
This is similar to [the "Miracle... continue reading
The world is heading towards a global food crisis in that there will be more people on earth ( +-9 billion) in 2050 than there have ever been. Furthermore, the food needed to feed this growing population will require that we produce more food in... continue reading
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