Industrial chemical reactors are commonly understood as analogous to heat engines; chemical processes frequently require both heat (increase in energy) and work (decrease in entropy) to operate. Just like in a heat engine, work can be supplied... continue reading
Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) testing is a widely-used diagnostic tool in the treatment of asthma, where it is used to estimate the extent of inflammation in the airways. Airway inflammation also plays a significant role in the disease progression... continue reading
Blood samples that were taken in Italy during the period September 2019 to March 2020 have been tested for COVID-19 antibodies, with as many as 10% of patients testing positive for COVID-19 in spite of those samples pre-dating widespread infection... continue reading
A large body of recent research has identified that excessive time spent sitting down is a major risk factor for mortality from all causes and that it directly contributes to a range of health issues prevalent in first-world countries. Many of... continue reading
Recent research has established that hypoventilation at low pulmonary volumes during moderate exercise can result in hypoxemia, similar to exposure to extreme altitude. It has also shown that a training program incorporating this method result in... continue reading
Total isolation and quarantine are being deployed in citiesaffected by the COVID-19 infection. These measures, while effective, have devastating socio-economic consequences. An alternative method which could achieve a major reduction in the... continue reading
It has been established that the mineral content, particularly of trace minerals, in modern food crops is considerably lower than in their natural forms, a phenomenon that arises as a result of a number of causes. Intense fertilization methods,... continue reading
Experimental and theoretical studies of the coffee brewing process have shown that most coffee preparation methods are affected by uneven particle distribution and uneven exposure of coffee grounds to hot water. This results in over-extraction... continue reading
It is conventionally assumed that the achievable concentration of a bio-alcohol molecule by fermentation is limited by the toxicity of that molecule to the micro-organisms producing it. In the case of ethanol, for example, extremely high titers... continue reading
It has been established that dissolution of membrane lipids plays a role in the toxicity of ethanol and butanol to micro-organisms; a matter of particular importance for the production of bio-alcohol fuels using fermentation by microbial activity.... continue reading
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