Towards a unified framework for studying the impact of linear infrastructures
Linear infrastructures such as roads, railways and power lines have considerable negative impacts on biodiversity and ecosystems (van der Ree et al. 2015; Borda-de-Água et al. 2017; D’Amico et al. 2018). All these impacts, including among others non-natural mortality and fragmentation, have been traditionally studied by focusing on single infrastructures (e.g. 1: bird collisions with power lines, Barrientos et al. 2011; e.g. 2: road-avoidance responses by ungulates, D’Amico et al. 2016). Nevertheless, most species can simultaneously suffer from negative impacts due to different infrastructures (e.g. 1: both roads and power lines determine high mortality rates for the little bustard Tetrax tetrax, Marcelino et al. 2018; e.g. 2: the reindeer Rangifer tarandus generally avoid both roads and power lines, Nellemann et al. 2001). As a consequence, we claim that considering at the same time all linear infrastructures would substantially improve our understanding of related impacts on biodiversity and ecosystems, thus providing more robust outcomes for planning both mitigation measures and more sustainable human developments.