Considering Amazonian microbial diversity
Diverse ecological communities of Amazonia play a crucial role in the maintenance of the biosphere. However, little is known about the microbial ecology of Amazonia. During an analysis of litter from an Amazonian wetland we discovered a new species of testate (‘shell-forming’) amoeba (TA) we have named Arcella peruviana (Reczuga et al., 2015). Probably many more new species of microbe remain undiscovered in Amazonia. TA occupy top positions in the microbial food web and have a wide range of feeding preferences including bacteria, algae, fungi and other protozoa. Owing to this connection with abundance and community structure in the lower trophic levels, TA are highly important in terms of soil nutrient and carbon cycling. It has recently been discovered that deforestation leads to net loss of diversity of soil bacteria, which may also inhibit the recovery of tropical forest (Rodrigues et al., 2012). This would impact the higher microbial trophic levels – including TA. Soil microbes represent the largest component of biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems and are important in terms of ecosystem functioning. Microbial biodiversity should not be ignored when considering the impacts of human activities and climate change in Amazonia.